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Nutrition

Powerful nutrients and herbs to boost immunity

Powerful nutrients and herbs to boost immunity

Here naturopath, nutritionist, medical herbalist and BodyTalk practitioner Merran Lusher, ND shares her top immunity-boosting tips.

Powerful nutrients to strengthen immunity

With coronavirus at large - strengthening our immune systems with the powerful antiviral, immune-enhancing properties of vitamin D3, vitamin C and probiotics is advantageous. Where even medicine doesn’t yet have a solution, we have at our disposal powerful and effective tools that offer protection and defence. Here are three of the most important immune supporting nutrients - for preventing, enhancing, building and maintaining strong immune health.

Vitamin D3

Heralded as ‘the sunshine vitamin’ - vitamin D3 is essential for the functioning of a healthy immune system. If you’ve been experiencing or are susceptible to a sore throat, nasal congestion, shortness of breath, cough, viral or chest infections, then you are more than likely vitamin D deficient.

The best source of vitamin D is from sunlight. However, during the winter months with the lack of sunshine most of us become deficient. Now that spring is here in the Northern Hemisphere, making the most where possible of getting a daily 30-40 minute hit of sunshine will go a long way to building up your reserves and strengthening your immunity against infections.

  • Solution: during the sun-deprived months, a good quality vitamin D3 supplement is essential. I prefer drops or spray. Sun lamps have also been shown to be a good way to boost vitamin D levels. Some foods like oily fish, egg yolks and cheese contain vitamin D, but not enough to offer much benefit.
  • High quality, affordable and easily accessible brands here in the UK include Nutri Advanced Vitamin D3 drops 1000 (30ml) and Better You Vitamin D 1000 Oral Spray (15ml). Available from most good health food retailers like Wholefoods, Revital and Planet Organic, etc.
  • Dose: during the coronavirus pandemic most adults could benefit from taking 4000-5000IUs daily for two weeks and then reducing down to 2000IUs daily. Check out the following article five common signs of a Vitamin D deficiency for more insight. When supplementing with Vitamin D, it’s really important to monitor blood levels where possible - so as to avoid toxicity. Hard to do amidst the corona craziness. If in doubt consult a naturopath or nutritionist.

Vitamin C

One of the mostly highly studied vitamins. With potent immune stimulating properties, vitamin C enhances white blood cell function and activity; increases antibody responses and levels, thymus secretions, interferon production and much more. Thus making it a lethal weapon in warding off colds, viruses and infections.

  • Foods rich in vitamin C include acerola, peppers, kale leaves, parsley, collard greens, broccoli and brussels sprouts. When buying a vitamin C supplement, try to buy one that also contains zinc, magnesium, bioflavonoids and other antioxidants to synergistically enhance the actions of vitamin C.
  • The practitioner brand Biomedica C-Max 200g is superior in quality. It also comes in capsules. Available only through my practitioner suppliers: The Natural Dispensary and Amrita Nutrition. Liposomal vitamin C is also an excellent way to maximise vitamin C absorption. Other good brands here in the UK include Altrient lipsomal vitamin C and YourZooki vitamin C Zooki.
  • Dose: 3000mg daily for most adults. For best absorption divide into two to three separate doses.

Probiotics

80% of our immune system is said to be located in our gut - so a healthy gut microbiome is an essential part of our immune defence. Our friendly microbes contribute to 80% of our genes, help fight off pathogenic viruses, bacteria and fungi and protect us from infection. However, a poor diet, refined sugar, stress, smoking, antibiotics, medications etc. can seriously deplete the health and biodiversity of our gut microbiota.

Food sources: eating a diet rich in prebiotic foods will feed and nourish our friendly gut bacteria. Good sources include: garlic, leeks, onions, asparagus, banana, barley, rye wheat bran and artichokes. Eating foods that are naturally rich in probiotics are also beneficial. Good examples include: yoghurt, kombucha, miso, kefir, kimchi and sauerkraut.

Good quality probiotics brands that are widely available across most good health food retailers in the UK include Nutri Advanced, Biomedica, Garden of Life and Optibac Probiotics.

Dose: x1 capsule daily for one month.

Note: during the coronavirus outbreak some supplements may be difficult to source. So you might need to shop around and try your luck!

“Without bacteria present, the immune system remains half asleep” - M Velasquez-Manoff

Powerful medical herbs to strengthen immunity

Herbal medicines have been used across ancient healing traditions for thousands of years to strengthen, modulate and enhance immune health. Some provide anti-viral, anti-inflammatory benefits. Others offer potent antioxidant, diaphoretic, antimicrobial and expectorant actions.

Powerful immune-enhancing herbs include: echinacea, astragalus, andrographis, elderberry, garlic, eleuthero root, elecampane, propolis, mullein, pau d’arco, cayenne, angelic, ginger, and olive leaf. They all (plus many more) just happen to be contained within my favourite immune boosting formula:

  • Source Naturals Wellness Formula - Herbal Defence Complex: this is honestly the best immune formulation on the market - at least here in the UK. Take note: the standard tablet size is on the ‘large size’ (simply because it’s packed full of goodness). They also do capsules. Dose: follow the manufacturer’s instructions. Available from my practitioner dispensary, Wholefoods and Revital.
  • Note: if you are unable to source this product, look out for other herbal immune formulas with a blend of even just a handful of these ingredients. Failing that - echinacea and vitamin C are great for supporting immune health and assist in reducing the severity and duration of infection.
  • Be sure to read the manufacturer’s instructions for cautions and contraindications.

So there we have it. If you want specific nutritional advice for what supplements are best for you - you can book a remote appointment with me. Tune in for my upcoming article on the top three household foods to boost your immune system. They may already be in your pantry.

If you like what you read, feel free to like, share and subscribe.

Take care and keep safe. x

London naturopath, nutritionist, medical herbalist and BodyTalk practitioner Merran Lusher, ND offers science-based intuitive holistic health consultations and healing for mind, body and soul. Merran consolidates other natural therapies into her treatments including energy work, homeopathy, reiki, dietary and lifestyle advice and much more. She runs a busy weekly remote clinic to clients around the world and also consults across two busy London practices in Chelsea and North London. You can read more about her here.

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Fertility Foodie: brunch o'clock

Fertility Foodie: brunch o'clock

Frankly, it's always brunch o'clock for us. We think it's the best meal of the day. We've curated a selection of delicious brunch recipes to enjoy with friends and family over a long, lazy weekend morning. As you'd expect, eggs feature heavily but we've also got something for any vegans amongst us and for those with a sweet tooth as well. Enjoy.

Of course, the most important thing for fertility is having a healthy, varied and balanced diet and lifestyle. We don't prescribe certain superfoods that will cure all your fertility issues but we've chosen recipes that are yummy, good for us and contain ingredients that have fertility-boosting properties.

Turkish eggs

By Peter Gordon

 

Why is it good for fertility? Well eggs of course - omega-3s, vitamins B12 and E and choline (which may help reduce the risk of birth defects). Add full-fat Greek yoghurt (which some studies have shown to reduce ovulation problems) to the mix and you're really upping the fertility-boosting benefits.

We've eaten this recipe in Peter Gordon's Kopapa restaurant in London and it is simply delicious. Get the recipe here

 

Black bean and tofu scramble

By Anna Jones for The Guardian

 

Why is it good for fertility? Black beans are a great source of plant-based protein and fibre. They also contain folate for conception and healthy embryos.

If you fancy a break from the eggs then give this a try - even the meat-eaters will enjoy it.  Choose a high quality tofu - they are not all created the same. Get the recipe here

 

Turmeric dal baked eggs

By Anna Jones for The Guardian

 

Why is it good for fertility? Eggs again of course for all those vitamins, omega-3s and choline. Add in greens (a source of folate - the natural form of folic acid) and lentils (good for male and female fertility) and you have a perfectly balanced brekkie.

Having spent a fair bit of time in India, we love Indian food and eggs and dhal in the morning is such a delicious and creamy mash up. Get the recipe here

 

Vegan vanilla blueberry buckwheat pancakes

By Oh She Glows

 

Why is it good for fertility? Blueberries are high in vitamin C, folate, fibre and anti-oxidants so have great fertility-boosting properties.

Sometimes we just crave something sweet in the morning and you can't beat a big stack of pancakes. These ones are vegan, gluten-free and made with natural sugars so you indulge away. Get the recipe here

 

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Fertility Foodie: desserts

Fertility Foodie: desserts

Here at The Fertility Circle we're definitely partial to a good bit of cake. We know it's important not to have too much sugar so we've chosen desserts that use mostly natural sugars and have lots of other ingredients that are great for fertility including lots of yummy fruits and nuts. Oh and this is dessert so chocolate features too of course!

Of course, as we always say, the most important thing for fertility is having a healthy, varied and balanced diet and lifestyle. We don’t prescribe certain superfoods that will cure all your fertility issues but we’ve chosen recipes that are yummy, good for us and contain ingredients that have fertility-boosting properties.

Strawberry poppy seed crisp

By Anna Jones

 

Why is it good for fertility? Strawberries are rich in antioxidants and also high in vitamin C, folate (the natural form of folic acid) and fibre. Add in nuts for some healthy protein and fat plus oats (a good source of B vitamins, vitamin E, magnesium, zinc, selenium and fibre) and you have a healthy and filling pud.

You can switch out the strawberries for any other fruits depending on the season and this is still just as yummy. Get the recipe here

Overnight chocolate chia pots

By Minimalist Baker

 

Why is it good for fertility? Chia really is a super food - can you believe it contains 8 times more omega-3 than salmon and more calcium than dairy. It's also high in iron, vitamin c, potassium and antioxidants and contains all 9 essential amino acids so they really are worth incorporating into your diet.

Extra points here for being vegan and gluten free. Plus, get ahead of the game by making up the night before! Get the recipe here

Grilled pineapple

By Delish

 

Why is it good for fertility? We're not so sure about the whole idea of eating pineapple core for 5 days to support implantation but go for it if you fancy it! Even if this is an urban myth, pineapple does contain heaps of vitamin C as well as nutrients that support digestion and contain anti-inflammatory properties.

We first tried pineapple on the BBQ on holiday and we haven't gone back since. This is simply the most delicious way to eat it. Get the recipe here

No bake turmeric coconut balls

By Running on Real Food

 

Why is it good for fertility? Turmeric is a great food for fighting inflammation - important for overall health and fertility. Add in cinnamon - another great anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant - and you've got a little ball packed full of fertility goodness.

Super easy to make, these are a great snack to keep in the fridge and grab on the go for a yummy sweet and spicy hit. Get the recipe here

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Fertility Foodie: curries

Fertility Foodie: curries

We love a good curry! So delicious and vibrant and ever so comforting as the cold nights set in. Plus, made right, they can be super healthy and you can pack them full of whatever you like (meat, fish, veggies) so they're super versatile. Check out this curated list of our favourite curries - perfect to serve in a big vat to friends or as leftovers curled up on the sofa.

Of course, the most important thing for fertility is having a healthy, varied and balanced diet and lifestyle. We don’t prescribe certain superfoods that will cure all your fertility issues but we’ve chosen recipes that are yummy, good for us and contain ingredients that have fertility-boosting properties.

Sweet Potato Dahl

By Anna Jones

Why is it good for fertility? Lentils are great for us in so many ways! They're an amazing source of plant-based protein and folate (folic acid). They also contain high levels of polyamine spermidine (something which may contribute to healthy sperm).

This is my go-to comfort food. If I'm feeling a bit rubbish, I knock up a batch of this and feel warmed from the inside out. It's a great freezer food as well (I often don't bother with sweet potato and chutney and instead just go with lots of fresh coriander and a big squeeze of lime). Get the recipe here

Thai Green Chicken Curry

By Jamie Oliver

Why is it good for fertility? Lots of greens, a healthy and lean source of protein. Pair it with brown rice as a complex carb.

I've been making this tried and tested Jamie recipe since I was at uni (which was a long time ago!) and it always goes down a treat - you can't beat a fresh paste - it's so herby and vibrant (and the smell is divine!). I don't eat chicken so just replace that with prawns or veggies. Get the recipe here

Coconut Fish Curry

By Meera Sodha

Why is it good for fertility? Healthy white fish makes a great source of protein. Tomatoes are rich in lycopene which is important for healthy sperm (count and swimming speed apparently!). Add some extra green veg and this will be packed full of super healthy, fertility-boosting foods.

This is a Keralan (southern Indian) curry. If you haven't tried Keralan food before then give it a go - I tend to think of it as a beautiful blend of Indian (from the spices) and Thai (from the coconut) cuisines. Plus it's a lovely light curry. Get the recipe here

Roasted Coconut, Lime and Tamarind Curry

By Anna Jones

Why is it good for fertility? Green veg and tomatoes again - a great fertility combo. I'll often add chick peas to this if I fancy a bit more bulk and to add to the fertility goodness.

I know this is the second Anna Jones curry here but this is my other go-to curry that I can make out of store cupboard ingredients. It has a punchy sweet and sour profile so makes for an interesting change and is super delicious. Get the recipe here

Beetroot, Chickpea and Coconut Curry

By Rukmini Iyer for The Happy Foodie

Why is it good for fertility? Chick peas are great all round - protein, folate (folic acid) and fibre to support hormonal balance. Dig in!

This is featured in one of my new fave books - The Green Roasting Tin. It has so many super useful and easy ideas for tasty food that you can just cook in one pot in the oven. I'd highly recommend it! And this recipe looks super interesting on the table. Get the recipe here

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Three best household foods to boost immune health

Three best household foods to boost immune health

Here naturopath, nutritionist, medical herbalist and BodyTalk practitioner Merran Lusher, ND advises us to dig out those kitchen staples to support our immune systems.

Run of the mill kitchen staples like garlic, ginger and chilli offer us more immune protection than you may know. Contrary to the mainstream modern day believer, food IS medicine. With powerful immune bolstering properties, these age old super spices are timeless. Packed with a powerhouse of anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial plant compounds, these superstars can help to protect, prevent and repel the initial stages of infection.

With coronavirus and social distancing restrictions in full swing - now is the time to get resourceful. And what better way to do so than by using regular household produce found in our kitchen cupboards and local greengrocers?

Here are some of the amazing benefits that these understated and under appreciated day-to-day foods offer us.

Note: for the very best results - incorporate at least two of these ingredients into your diet every 2-3 days.

Garlic

Referred to as the ‘Russian Penicillin’ - the use of garlic for medicinal purposes dates back to Sanskrit records from 5000 years ago. Effective in warding off common infections, garlic has both anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating effects. It’s linked with increasing macrophage and natural killer cell activity and the production of T and B cells that fight virus infected cells. Garlic has also been shown to stimulate the immune system's ability to reduce the severity and duration of the common cold - the world’s most widespread viral infection.  Findings from a large, twelve week study demonstrated taking a daily garlic supplement reduced the number of colds and upper respiratory tract viral infections by 60% compared to a placebo. Rich in the sulphur-containing compound allicin, garlic has powerful anti bacterial, antiviral and anti-fungal properties.

  • Uses: add fresh garlic to soups, stews or any hot dish in the last minute of cooking. Add raw to freshly homemade hummus. Macerate in olive oil for one week and use in dressings and marinades. Or roast whole and enjoy alongside your evening tatties. Note: for maximum benefits - consume raw.
  • Quick and easy hummus dip: puree together one can of chickpeas (400g), three cloves of fresh garlic, two tablespoons of tahini, four tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil, four tablespoons of fresh lemon juice, 4-6 tablespoons of cold water and salt to taste. Optional: add half teaspoon of ground cumin. Add more lemon juice, garlic, salt, or cumin to taste. Sprinkle a dash of paprika or sumac on top for serving - with a drizzle of olive oil. Enjoy as a snack with warm pitta bread, toasted rye bread, celery or carrot sticks.

Chilli peppers

Native to Central America - there are said to be over three thousands varieties of chilli peppers - varying in size, heat, colour, shape and flavour. The plant compound capsaicin - gives chilli its heat factor - and anti-inflammatory, immune stimulating affects. Chillis contain high amounts of vitamin C, betacarotene, B6, iron, and flavonoids etc. which further make them effective in building up our immunity against infection and illnesses. A powerful circulatory stimulant - chilli gets the blood flowing and promotes the circulation of immune boosting compounds, oxygen and other nutrients to vital organs, tissues and cells. A powerful decongestant - chillis are great for breaking down mucus and relieving congestion.

  • Uses: A great addition to soups, stews, sauces, stir fries, chilli salsa or bean, chicken or meat chilli con carne. A little goes a long way.
  • Immune boosting dressing: add 1/2 teaspoon grated ginger, 2 tablespoons of freshly squeezed lemon, 1 tablespoon tamari (or regular soya sauce), 4 tablespoons raw sesame oil, one mashed clove of garlic and a hint of chilli (optional - to your liking). Delicious drizzled over a salad or steamed veggies.

Ginger

Originates from southeastern Asia, India and China and has been used in mainstream diet for thousands of years. Potent volatile compounds called gingerols give ginger its knockout aromatic pungency and anti-inflammatory affects. It’s most well known for its effectiveness in treating gastrointestinal complaints and inflammatory immune disorders like osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. But it ALSO boasts powerful antioxidant, diaphoretic (perspiration inducing), antimicrobial benefits with evidence confirming its effective in helping to treat infectious diseases.

  • Uses: ginger can be added to any homemade Indian or Asian style cuisine. It’s also great in soups, dressing or with fish. You can even juice it and drink it as a shot, or add to hot water and enjoy as a tea.
  • Ginger, lemon and honey drink: peel and thinly slice one inch of ginger (or more to taste). Add to a mug of hot water with 1/2 squeezed lemon and a teaspoon of honey (or to taste). Let it steep for 5-10 minutes and then strain. Great to sip on when you feel a cold or flu coming on.

Ginger, garlic and chilli are steeped in history and have stood the test of time - for good reason. Incorporating these immune boosting foods into our every day diet is a really simple and proactive way to support our immune health, the health of our loved ones, households and communities at large.

Other great immune supporting foods to eat more of include lemons, red and orange bell peppers, onions, leeks, broccoli, almonds, raw organic coconut oil, grapefruit, limes, green tea, papaya, turmeric, celery, dark green leafy vegetables, kiwifruit and coriander.

For more recipe inspiration, check out Dale Pinnock, the medicinal chef’s famous flu fighting - immune boosting soup.

London naturopath, nutritionist, medical herbalist and BodyTalk practitioner Merran Lusher, ND offers science-based intuitive holistic health consultations and healing for mind, body and soul. Merran consolidates other natural therapies into her treatments including energy work, homeopathy, reiki, dietary and lifestyle advice and much more. She runs a busy weekly remote clinic to clients around the world and also consults across two busy London practices in Chelsea and North London. You can read more about her here.

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Fertility 101: using nutrition and lifestyle to support egg quality

Fertility 101: using nutrition and lifestyle to support egg quality

Many women are worried that they are getting older and have been repeatedly told that there is nothing that can done to improve egg quality. In this article registered Nutritional Therapist, fertility specialist and IVF mum to two girls, Victoria Smith of Victoria Smith Nutrition looks at how the picture is not so clear cut and how using the right nutrition and lifestyle changes can support your egg quality, no matter what your age.

What is egg quality?

Egg quality describes the potential of an egg to become a viable pregnancy after fertilisation. There are many factors to this, but probably the most important factor is having the correct number of copies of each chromosome. As women we have been told repeatedly that fertility takes a nose-dive after 35 and well, after 40, it falls off a cliff. This can be a time of fear, stress and anxiety for many of us.

Female babies are born with all their eggs and, during the time from development to ovulation, eggs have many opportunities to accumulate damage as part of the natural ageing process. However, it’s not quite so simple as thinking that as every year goes past, our eggs just get older and there is nothing that can be done to change or improve egg quality. Each egg exists in a suspended state from development until about 3-4 months before ovulation when a small number of immature eggs begin maturing. Most of these eggs will not survive this process and eventually only one dominant egg will be selected for ovulation. 

One study from 2012 suggested that age is only one factor of many that may result in incorrect maturity before ovulation; there are other factors including internal and external environmental conditions that may act at many different stages of egg maturation to influence the likelihood of mistakes. This should give you hope that by changing some of these internal and external conditions in the months before ovulation, you really can increase the likelihood of an egg maturing correctly, thus improving your egg quality.

What can you do to support egg quality?

Preparation is key! Remember the egg takes about 3 months to mature. Be realistic that changes aren’t going to happen overnight and the ideal amount of time to prepare is 3-4 (or even better, 6) months. You wouldn’t just run a marathon without doing the training and, preparing for conception, which ever route you go down is exactly the same. It is crucial to note that your aim should not be just about getting pregnant, but rather being able to maintain a healthy pregnancy and have a healthy baby, as well as smooth postnatal recovery. 

What does an egg-nourishing diet look like?

So, you might all be thinking that you know how to eat, but I am here to tell you that the well-balanced diet is a myth. Results of the official government 2018 Health Survey for England showed that only 28% of adults are achieving the 5 a day fruit and vegetable target. In a nutshell, by far the best diet for fertility for both women and men is the Mediterranean diet, which is one full of nutrient dense foods and great at reducing inflammation: 

  • Aim for at least 5 vegetables and fruit a day (ideally more!) and focus on colour, variety and abundance 
  • Include a big portion of dark green leafy vegetables every day
  • Plenty of fish (oily fish 2 times a week, but avoid tinned tuna)
  • Add in vegetable proteins, such as beans, lentils and chickpeas a few times a week
  • Stay away from trans-fats and refined carbs found in processed foods as these can be inflammatory 
  • Include a moderate amount of whole grains, such as oats, brown rice, quinoa, millet and buckwheat
  • Reduce your red meat intake and it should always be grass fed and organic
  • Include lots of healthy fats for hormone building, such as avocados, oily fish, nuts and seeds and olive oil
  • Add fresh spices and herbs for antioxidants and flavour

How can you change your lifestyle to improve egg quality?

Lifestyle also plays an important part in influencing our egg quality. One study showed that couples with more than 4 ‘negative lifestyle variables’ took 7 times longer to get pregnant than those without the same variables (these included smoking, alcohol in the male partner, BMI, caffeine etc.) With this in mind, here are my top tips:

  • Make sure your BMI is within the normal ideal range (20-25), as obesity (BMI over 30) negatively affects fertility. If you have weight to lose, then the key is to do it gradually as fatty tissue has toxins that get released into the circulation when crash dieting.
  • Significantly reduce or even avoid alcohol as it can be very inflammatory for the body. However, the odd glass of good quality, organic red wine once or twice a month is probably ok. Please note it is probably best to abstain in the second half of your cycle or during IVF treatment.
  • Reduce and limit, rather than avoid caffeine but go organic and use the best quality you can find. The odd small cup every so often is probably fine. Be careful with decaf options as, although perceived as ‘healthy’, these can be full of chemicals (always look for Swiss Water Process decaf), consider green tea as an option and swap your regular coffee for a dandelion coffee latte (I promise you get use to them!)
  • Absolutely no smoking for both partners 
  • Avoid toxins by reducing your plastic use and swap your personal care and cleaning products to more natural ranges, eat as much organic food as you can and always drink filtered water.
  • Reduce your stress as it massively impacts fertility. It is not just external emotional stress that we need to consider, but also internal physiological stress, such as infections, nutrient depletions, inflammation and lack of sleep. 
  • Stop over-exercising as more is definitely not better when it comes to fertility! Avoid spin classes, HIIT classes and marathon running. Think more gentle activities such as yoga, swimming, walking, Pilates and tai chi instead.
  • Explore if your diet is lacking in any essential fertility nutrients. Our levels of zinc, B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, choline, CoQ10 and essential fatty acids are crucial for good fertility and egg quality. We can easily become depleted in these depending on our current diet, lifestyle, any medical conditions and medical history.

Where can I get help in bringing this altogether?

If you are feeling a little overwhelmed by all this and are wondering where you can get help on your fertility journey, then consider working with a Nutritional Therapist (NT). For a fraction of the price of fertility treatment, an NT specialising in fertility will review all aspects of your fertility journey including diet, lifestyle and current supplements, as well as exploring any possible root causes of fertility issues. Look for an NT who is a member of the British Association of Nutrition and Lifestyle Medicine (BANT) and is registered with the Complementary & Natural Healthcare Council (CNHC) to ensure they are fully qualified and highly knowledgeable. But as last thought remember egg quality is only half of the overall picture and don’t forget that sperm quality plays an equally important role.

Find out more information about Victoria Smith Nutrition here.

[1] Fett R (2019) It starts with the egg. 2nd edition, New York, Franklin Fox Publishing

[2] Fett R (2019) It starts with the egg. 2nd edition, New York, Franklin Fox Publishing 

[3] Nagaoka et al (2012) Human aneuploidy: mechanisms and new insights onto an age-old problem. Nat Rev Genet; 13(7): 493-504

[4] Health Survey for England (HSE) (2018) Fruit & vegetables. Accessed 20th February 2020

 http://healthsurvey.hscic.gov.uk/data-visualisation/data-visualisation/explore-the-trends/fruit-vegetables.aspx

[5] Hassan et al (2004) Negative lifestyle is associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. Fert Steril, 81(2): 384-92

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